To think that cardiovascular disease affects only older people is a mistake.
Data from the Ministry of Health reveal that episodes of heart attack among adults up to 30 years old have risen by 13% in the last seven years.
On World Heart Day, celebrated on Tuesday (29), Hapvida cardiologist in João Pessoa Thalyssa Lira (photo), explains that heart disease can be congenital or acquired and that young adults with myocardial infarction usually present multiple risk factors.
“Congenital abnormalities not diagnosed in childhood, can manifest in young adults and in these cases, it is not related to unhealthy habits. However, in recent decades, cardiovascular diseases have been increasing in young people secondary to changes in the profile of risk factors in this population ”, he explains.
Among the heart problems that most affect young people is myocardial infarction.
The cardiologist says that according to the Framingham Heart Study the incidence of myocardial infarction in follow-up for a period of 10 years was 12.9 / 1,000 men aged 30 to 34 and 5.2 / 1,000 in women aged 35 to 44 years.
Thalyssa also explains that the mechanisms of infarction in young individuals can be differentiated into four groups: atherosclerotic coronary disease; non-atherosclerotic coronary disease; hypercoagulable state; and myocardial infarction due to substance abuse.
“Young adults with myocardial infarction generally have multiple risk factors for coronary heart disease, such as smoking, a family history of premature coronary artery disease, lipid abnormalities, obesity, high blood pressure and changes in glucose metabolism.
Other contributing factors are the use of contraceptives in women (especially when associated with heavy smoking) and the frequent use of illicit drugs ”, he explains.
Given the statistics that point to an increase in the number of cases, the doctor emphasizes the need for young people to remain alert to the appearance of symptoms that suggest cardiological changes, whether they are chest pain or discomfort, dizziness, frequent fainting, palpitations, tachycardia, lack and limitations for physical activity.
The specialist also explains that coronary heart disease may present differently in the youth population and not trigger episodes of angina, as is common in the elderly population, presenting quickly with acute myocardial infarction.
The doctor also says that the incidence of cardiovascular disease in young adults in recent decades suggests an increasing burden of these diseases in the future. As this younger segment of the population ages, there is a need, therefore, to control modifiable risk factors and early detection, in order to reduce the negative impacts that these diseases have on the quality of life of their patients.
For this reason, the doctor reinforces the need to know the family history, seek a balanced lifestyle, eat healthy, exercise, quit smoking, and seek medical advice if she has symptoms suggestive of cardiovascular changes.
Thalyssa also warns that the ideal time to consult a cardiologist can vary according to different situations.
“A specialist should be sought in the presence of cardiovascular complaints; When risk factors are not involved, it is recommended to carry out the first assessment, in the case of men after they turn 40, and women, after 45. Now, if risk factors are present, the age for the first check cardiac uptake reduces to 30 and 40 years, respectively ”, he advises.