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Home Breaking News Almost half of women did not go through a gynecologist in 2020

Almost half of women did not go through a gynecologist in 2020


In order to understand the level of knowledge of women about cervical cancer and contribute to reducing misinformation about the disease in Brazil, the Institute of Urology, Oncology and Robotic Surgery (IUCR) applied the questionnaire “What do women know about cervical cancer and HPV?”. The online questionnaire, applied to a convenience sample, was attended by 548 women from 18 years of age. Amid the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic, just over half (55.7%) of the interviewees went through at least one routine visit in the gynecologist in 2020. Among those who made an appointment, 58.4% were for supplementary health and 41.1% for the Unified Health System (THEIR).

Regarding the level of education presented in the sample, 41.6% have completed higher education (undergraduate, graduate, master’s or doctorate). The main occupation was liberal professional (19.6%), however 28.6% of the participants are unemployed. Mostly, the women interviewed are married (55.7%) and have children (74.6%). In the sample, 12% said they had been diagnosed with a type of cancer, the most common being breast and cervix.

“ The survey provides data that raise topics for reflection. Even among women, who are more zealous about their health, the demand for routine consultations was low. The pandemic continues and it is essential to strengthen the alert about the importance of preventing cervical cancer, a disease that, with the Pap test and the HPV vaccine, is preventable ”, highlights Andréa Gadêlha Guimarães, clinical oncologist at the Instituto de Urology, Oncology and Robotic Surgery (IUCR) and the ACCamargo Cancer Center.

Knowledge and adherence to the Pap smear

Among the interviewees, 85.2% recognize Pap smear as the main exam for the diagnosis of cervical cancer and 82% perform the routine exam, with an interval between one and three years. Among the 18% who do not perform the exam routinely or never did, the main causes pointed out were an uncomfortable exam and fear of feeling pain. When asked about signs and symptoms, 88% correctly answered that, in the initial stage, cervical cancer has no symptoms and that with the progression of the disease may occur: dark vaginal discharge; vaginal bleeding after intercourse; pain during sex; abnormal vaginal bleeding (after menopause or between menstrual periods) etc. In addition, 96% showed knowledge when stating that cervical cancer is a disease that can affect women of all ages and more than 90% pointed out that the most indicated specialist to treat the disease is the oncologist or gynecologist.

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Among the points of attention, warns Andréa Gadêlha, is the fact that 1 in 4 women are unaware of infection by HPV as the main cause of cervical cancer. In the sample, 23.4% pointed out other causes (smoking, being over 40 years old, obesity, early onset of sexual life and sexual practice with many partners and without a condom). “Another question that we should be aware of is that half (50.1%) responded as false or I do not know for the statement that cervical cancer is one of the easiest types to be avoided”, notes the expert.

The HPV vaccine is indicated for boys and girls as a strategy to prevent cervical cancer, as well as to prevent cancer of the penis, anus and oropharynx. However, the majority of respondents (53.8%) answered “false” or “I don’t know” to the statement that HPV is related to cancer of the penis, anus and oropharynx in men. “It is an evidence of how important it is to talk to the population, more and more, about the importance of also immunizing boys,” says Andréa Gadêlha.

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Among the myths, one that stands out is the fact that the majority (57.7%) believe that the use of condoms during sexual intercourse completely protects against HPV when, in fact, although condoms are an important ally to prevent this and other sexually transmitted infections, the virus may be in areas that condoms do not protect, such as the vulva, pubic, perineal region or scrotum and, therefore, it is essential, to avoid HPV, to associate the use of condoms with immunization by the vaccine.

Care during the pandemic

The survey also outlined the profile of health care in the time of Covid-19. The good news is that only 7.7% said that, during the pandemic, only those who already have a cancer diagnosis and are undergoing treatment should go to the doctor and only 3.5% said that cancer does not arise unexpectedly and that it is possible expect to pass this pandemic moment to get back to the exam routine. In turn, half of the respondents did not undergo a routine gynecologist consultation in 2020.

Follow the complete results:

AGE

8 – 24

30 (5,5%)

25 – 34

89 (16,2%)

25 – 44

171 (31,3%)

45 – 54

171 (31,3%)

55 – 64

57 (10,4%)

65 – 74

29 (5,3%)

75 or +

0

WHAT IS YOUR CURRENT OCCUPATION?

Self-employed professional, entrepreneur

107 (19,6%)

CLT Professional

83 (15,2%)

Retired

69 (12,6%)

Unemployed

157 (28,6%)

Intern

26 (4,7%)

Public agent

106 (9,3%)


WHAT IS YOUR SCHOOL DEGREE?

Complete or incomplete elementary school

48 (8,8%)

Complete or incomplete high school

211 (38,5%)

Incomplete higher education

61 (11,1%)

Complete higher education

137 (25%)

Post-graduate, master’s or doctorate

91 (16,6%)

WHAT IS YOUR MARITAL STATUS?

Married

305 (55,7%)

Single

149 (27,2%)

Divorcee

44 (8%)

Others

50 (9,1%)

DO YOU HAVE KIDS?

Sim

409 (74,6%)

No

139 (25,4%)

IF YES, HOW MANY CHILDREN DO YOU HAVE?

a

143 (35,6%)

Two

178 (35,1%)

Three or more

87 (21,3%)

YOU PASSED IN ROUTINE CONSULTATION
WITH GYNECOLOGIST IN 2020?

Sim

305 (55,7%)

No

243 (44,3%)

HAVE YOU HAD ANY TYPE OF CANCER?

Sim

66 (12%)

No

482 (88%)

RESPONSE AFFIRMATIVELY TO THE QUESTION PREVIOUS, WHAT KIND OF CANCER DID YOU HAVE?

ABOUT Cervix Cancer, choose
ALTERNATIVE THAT BETTER APPLIES TO DISEASE

It is a disease that affects only
women over the age of 60

2 (0,4%)

It is a tumor that can affect
women of all ages

526 (96%)

Cervical cancer has no treatment or cure.
Thus, in case of confirmed diagnosis, the doctor will only recommend palliative treatment for pain control

5 (0,9%)

It is a disease that cannot be prevented
and is related to hereditary factors

15 (2,7%)

ABOUT CIRCUS CANCER SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS,
SIGN THE ALTERNATIVE THAT YOU CONSIDER CORRECT

In the initial stage, cervical cancer has constant vaginal bleeding. In addition, headache, difficulty sleeping, lack of appetite, high fever for more than three days, change in libido, pain when urinating etc.

42 (7,7%)

In the initial stage, cervical cancer has no symptoms. As the disease progresses, there may be: vaginal discharge of a dark color; vaginal bleeding after intercourse; pain during sex; abnormal vaginal bleeding (after menopause or between menstrual periods) etc.

482 (88%)

Cervical cancer presents among the symptoms of the initial phase mental confusion due to hormonal changes. With advanced disease, there is pain in the abdomen and intense and continuous vaginal bleeding.

24 (4,3%)

ALL FOLLOWING ALTERNATIVES REFER TO RISK FACTORS
FOR DEVELOPMENT OF Cervix Cancer. CHOICE THE RISK FACTOR THAT, IN YOUR OPINION, IS THE MOST IMPORTANT:

Smoking

17 (3,1%)

Being over 40

19 (3,5%)

Obesity

9 (1,6%)

Sexual practice with many partners / without using a condom (condom)

76 (13,9%)

Early onset of sexual life

7 (1,3%)

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection

420 (76,6%)

YOU GO TO THE DOCTOR TO PERFORM EXAMS
THAT CAN PREVENT / DIAGNOSE THE TYPES
OF GYNECOLOGICAL CANCER? WITH WHICH PERIODICITY?

Yes, once a year

361 (65,9%)

Yes, every six months

43 (7,8%)

Yes, eventually

54 (9,9%)

Only when I have any symptoms

76 (13,9%)

I never was. I don’t think it’s necessary

14 (2,5%)

WITH WHICH PERIODICITY DO YOU PERFORM THE PAP SCAN?

Annually

355 (64,8%)

Every two or three years

94 (17,2%)

Never did

40 (7,3%)

I do it only when I feel some discomfort

38 (6,9%)

I did it over two years ago, but I don’t intend to repeat

21 (3,8)

IF YOU ANSWERED IN THE PREVIOUS QUESTION
WHO DID PAPANICOLAU MORE THAN TWO YEARS OR NEVER DID IT, ANSWER WHY THE REASON THAT HAPPENS:

The exam is uncomfortable

35 (17,9%)

Fear of feeling pain

45 (23,1%)

I don’t know the exam

25 (12,8%)

I did not find it necessary to repeat the test, since the result did not indicate cancer the last time it was performed.

6 (3,1%)

I couldn’t get access to schedule the exam

8 (4,1%)

Another motive

76 (39%)

CURRENTLY, YOU MAKE AN APPOINTMENT BY
WHICH ASSISTANCE MODEL?

Supplementary Health (private or private insurance)

320 (58,4%)

Single Health System (SUS)

228 (41,6%)

FOR YOU, WHAT IS THE MEDICAL SPECIALIST WHO
CAN YOU TREAT Cervix Cancer?

Oncologist

347 (63,3%)

Gynecologist

155 (28,3%)

General practitioner

1 (0,2%)

I do not know how to answer

15 (2,7)

All of the above

30 (5,5%)

MARK WHICH IS THE MAIN EXAMINATION FOR
DIAGNOSIS OF Cervix Cancer

Pap smear

467 (85,2%)

Transvaginal ultrasound

71 (13%)

Blood test

7 (1,3%)

I do not know how to answer

3 (0,5%)

ON HEALTH CARE DURING PANDEMIC
FROM COVID-19, WHICH ALTERNATIVES DO YOU AGREE TO?
The sum exceeds 100% as it allows choosing more than one option

Cancer does not arise unexpectedly and I can
wait for the pandemic to pass to return to the routine of examinations

19 (3,5%)

Everyone who has symptoms should,
regardless of the pandemic, seek medical advice

356 (65%)

Time does not stop. Neither is cancer. I must
maintain the routine of preventive exams

420 (76,6%)

You should only go to the doctor during the pandemic who has already
has a cancer diagnosis and is undergoing treatment

42 (7,7%)

CONSIDERING THE AFFIRMATIONS BELOW ABOUT
THE HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS (HPV) VACCINE, YOU
AGREE OR DISAGREE WITH ADVERTISERS?

I agree

I disagree

Do not know

The HPV vaccine is the main form
for cervical cancer prevention

375

127

46

The HPV vaccine is available for free in the public system for girls between 9 and 14 years old, because cervical cancer is an exclusively female disease. Boys don’t need this immunization

175

332

41

The HPV vaccine is available free of charge to girls, between 9 and 14 years old, and boys, between 11 and 14 years old.

432

76

40

The HPV vaccine is not fully
safe and causes many side effects

44

397

107

It is best to get the vaccine before the start
of sex life to ensure greater effectiveness

447

52

49

HPV is related to cancer of the penis,
anus and oropharynx in men

253

155

140

MYTHS AND TRUTHS ABOUT Cervix Cancer

False

True

Do not know

HPV is the leading cause of breast cancer
cervix. It is transmitted by sexual contact
and affects almost 80% of sexually active people

85

382

81

Men do not develop HPV-related illnesses

394

71

83

Cervical cancer is one of the types
cancers easier to avoid.

135

273

140

Condom use during intercourse
protection fully protects against HPV

167

316

65

All women with HPV will get cancer

363

75

110

Pap smear is the gynecological exam
most common preventive measure to identify injuries
precursors of cervical cancer.

96

424

28

With the early identification and treatment of changes that precede cervical cancer, it is possible to prevent 100% of the cases of the disease.

368

110

70




.

Source link
https://medicinasa.com.br/ginecologista-2020/


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